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Diagnostic and Staging Work Up

Revised 26 Sept 2012

  • Digital rectal examination​ to determine local involvement
  • Anoscopy or sigmoidoscopy with biopsy
  • CT scan of the chest, abdomen and pelvis is recommended to assess of local, regional involvement and to exclude distant metastases.
  • Consider pelvic MRI and PET/CT for staging locally advanced cases.
  • Female patients should have a gynecologic examination (with Pap smear) to exclude a synchronous cervical cancer, as both types of cancer are related to human papilloma virus (HPV) infection
  • ​If suspected, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serology and CD4 count

SOURCE: Diagnostic and Staging Work Up ( )
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