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Predisposing Factors/Prevention

Revised 08 May 2013​

Predisposing Factors

Cancer of the testis is relatively uncommon in B.C., but the incidence rate has almost quadrupled in the past 40 years. Mortality has fallen during the same period as effective treatments have evolved.

Patients with testicular atrophy of any cause such as cryptorchism, mumps orchitis, or ectopic testis have an increased risk for developing testis cancer. Vasectomy has been ruled out as a cause of testicular cancer. There is also a 3-5% risk for testis cancer patients to develop a contralateral testis cancer. First degree relatives of a testis cancer patient have a 3-10 fold increase in risk for developing a testis cancer.

References:

  1. Canadian Cancer Society/National Cancer Institute of Canada: Canadian Cancer Statistics 2005. Toronto, Canada, 2005.

  2. Adami H-O, Hunter D, Trichopoulos D. Textbook of Cancer Epidemiology. Oxford University Press, New York, 2002; P429-445.

  3. Moller H, Prener A, Skakkebaek NE. Testicular cancer, cryptorchidism, inguinal hernia, testicular atrophy, and genital malformations: case-control studies in Denmark. Cancer Causes Control 1996; 7: 264-274.

  4. Van der-Maase H, Rorth M, Walbom-Jorgensen S et al. Carcinoma in situ of contralateral testis in patients with testicular germ cell cancer: study of 27 cases in 500 patients. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986; 293: 1398-1401.

  5. Westergaard T, Olsen JH, Frisch M et al. Cancer risk in fathers and brothers of testicular cancer patients in Denmark. A population-based study. Int J Cancer 1996; 66: 627-631.

  6. Sonneveld DJ, Sleijfer DT, Schrafford-Koops H et al. Familial testicular cancer in a single-centre population. Eur J Cancer 1999; 35: 1368-1373.

  7. Kollmansberger C, Tyldesley S, Moore C et al. Evolution in management of testicular seminoma: population-based outcomes with selective utilization of active therapies. Annals of Oncology 2011, 22: 808-814.


Prevention:

Testicular self-examination is the recommended method of early detection for testicular cancer but no evidence is available as to its efficiency. Due to the overall low incidence and high cure rate of testis cancer there is no need for additional preventive measures besides self examination for first-degree relatives.

Reference: 

  1. Schottenfeld D. Testicular cancer. In: Schottenfeld D, Fraumeni JF Jr. (Eds). Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. 2nd Ed. 1996. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Pp 1207-1219.

SOURCE: Predisposing Factors/Prevention ( )
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