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Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer (Stage T2a)

​Updated April 2008

Definitive single modality treatment with either cystectomy, or radiotherapy (with or without concurrent chemotherapy) are curative treatment options. Patients treated with radiotherapy must be followed closely cystoscopically if salvage cystectomy remains a viable option. Some patients may be eligible for a combined modality approach (see s​ection 3). If a radical therapy is to be performed, ideally it should be initiated within four to six weeks, but no later than three months.

Conservative management of highly selected T2a lesions with completely resected small tumours and low and intermediate grade tumours with only superficial muscle invasion is a controversial practice requiring extreme caution and careful follow-up.

SOURCE: Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer (Stage T2a) ( )
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