Updated February 2008
There are many screening tools for bladder cancer that are available, including urinalysis (microscopy or dip), urine cytology, or other urinary tests such as NMP-22, Immunocyt™, or BTA. The best use of these tests for routine screening for bladder cancer is currently unclear and thus not generally recommended as screening tests for the general population.
However, these tests, including urinalysis and urine cytology may be an efficient and cost effective method for screening high-risk groups including smokers and workers exposed to industrial toxins and patients who have a history of bladder cancer. Patients who exhibit hematuria, either overt or microscopic, should, as part of their initial investigation, undergo urine cytology examination.
Cytologic examination of urine may be useful among very high-risk groups (aluminium pot room workers), but the prevalence of preclinical bladder cancer is too low to make large-scale population screening practical.4