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References

​Updated April 2008

  1. ​Canadian Cancer Society/National Cancer Institute of Canada: Canadian Cancer Statistics 2007, Toronto, Canada, 2007.

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  8. Herr HW, Schwalb DM, Zhang Z-F, et al. Intravesical Bacille Calmette-Guerin Therapy Prevents Tumor Progression and Death from Superficial Bladder Cancer: Ten-year Follow-up of a Prospective Randomized Trial. J Clin Oncol 1995; 13: 1404-8.

  9. Lamm DL, Blumenstein BA, Crissman JD, et al. Maintenance Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Immunotherapy for Recurrent Ta, T1 and Carcinoma In Situ Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder: A Randomized Southwest Oncology Group Study. J Urol 2000; 163: 1124-9.

  10. O’Donnell, MA, Krohn J, and DeWolf WC. Salvage intravesical therapy with interferon-alpha 2B plus low dose bacillus Calmette-Guerin is effective in patients with superficial bladder cancer in whom bacillus Calmette-Guerin alone previously failed. J Urol 2001; 166: 1300-4.

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  12. Lundholm, C., et al., A randomized prospective study comparing long-term intravesical instillations of mitomycin C and bacillus Calmette-Guerin in patients with superficial bladder carcinoma. J Urol, 1996; 156: 372-6.

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  14. Lam, J.S., et al., Bacillus Calmette-Guerin plus interferon-alpha2B intravesical therapy maintains an extended treatment plan for superficial bladder cancer with minimal toxicity. Urol Oncol 2003; 21: 354-60

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  16. Cooke PW, Dunn JA, Latief T, et al. Long-term risk of salvage cystectomy after radiotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Eur Urol 2000; 38: 279-86.

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  18. Advanced Bladder Cancer (ABC) Meta-analysis Collaboration. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in invasive bladder cancer: update of a systemic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data. Eur Urol 2005; 48: 202-5.

  19. Coppin CM, Gospodarowicz MK, James K, Tannock IF, Zee B, Carson J, et al. Improved local control of invasive bladder cancer by concurrent cisplatin and preoperative or definitive radiation. The National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. J Clin Oncol 1996; 14: 2901-7.

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  23. van der Maase H, Hansen SW, Roberts JT, et al. Gemcitabine and cisplatin versus methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin in advanced or metastatic bladder cancer: results of a large, randomized, multinational, multicentre, phase III study. J Clin Oncol 2000; 17: 3068-77.

  24. Locke JR, Hill DE, and Walzer Y. Incidence of squamous cell carcinomas in patients with long term catheter drainage. J Urol 1985; 133: 1034-5.

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  27. Swanson DA, Liles A, and Zagars GK. Pre-operative irradiation and radical cystectomy for stage T2 and T3 squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol 1990; 143: 37-40.

  28. Grignon DJ, Ro JY, Ayala AG, et al. Primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic analysis of 72 cases. Cancer 1991; 67: 2165-72.

  29. Siefker-Radtke AO, Gee J, Shen Y, et al. Multimodality management of urachal carcinoma: the M.D. Anderson experience. J Urol 2003; 169: 1295-8.

  30. Blomjour CE, Vos W, De Voogt HJ, et al. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic, morphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of 18 cases. Cancer 1989; 64: 1347-57.

  31. Lohrisch C, Murray N, Pickles T, et al. Small cell carcinoma of the bladder. Long term outcome with integrated chemoradiation. Cancer 1999; 86: 2346-52.

  32. Walther PJ. Adjuvant/neoadjuvant etoposide/cisplatin and cystectomy for management of invasive small cell carcinoma. J Urol 2002; 167: 285, Abstract 1124.

  33. Kim JC, Steinberg GD. The limits of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin for carcinoma in situ of the bladder. J Urol 2001; 165: 745-756.

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